Distribution: Europe, particularly in the mountain areas of the Alps, Uk, Western Russia.
Timber Qualities: The resinous heartwood is pale red-brown to brick-red in color with clearly marked annual rings. The wood is straight grained and contains knots, with a fine uniform texture. Works well with most hand and power tools but knotty material has a severe blunting effect on cutting edges. Nailing causes splitting and pre-drilling is essential.
Uses: Due to it being harder than most conifers, it is used where there is a preference to strength and durability, flooring, door and window frames, staircases and exterior work being in contact with the ground.